Tag Archives: The War Powers Act of 1973

Speaker Boehner’s Libya Resolution Passes House

Speaker Boehner’s Libya House resolution H.R. 292 passed the House by a vote of 268 – 145 – 1 this past week. While many Republicans supported and voted for this bill on Friday, Congressman Allen West (R-FL) voted against it, and instead voted for Dennis Kucinich’s H. Con. Res. 51, The Kucinich War Powers Resolution. This resolution failed largely due to the intervention of Speaker Boehner, as noted in a FoxNews.com article:
Rep. Dennis  Kucinich (D-OH) authored a resolution a few weeks ago to require the  president to halt the involvement of the U.S. in the Libya conflict. Initially,  the House planned to consider the Kucinich resolution on Wednesday. But quickly,  the GOP leadership realized that if the House worked its will, it’s likely the  lawmakers would adopt Kucinich’s plan.
Even though many rank-and-file lawmakers agreed with Kucinich, the GOP  majority was reluctant to have a liberal, Democratic Congressman take the lead  on this issue. Secondly, some feared Kucinich’s resolution went too far,  mandating a withdrawal when Congress had failed to consult top commanders in the  field. Plus, House Republicans certainly didn’t want to debate the Libya issue  on the same day the entire GOP Conference huddled with Mr. Obama at the White  House on the debt ceiling. Third, there was worry that a U.S. withdrawal could  harm the viability of NATO. (emphasis mine)
Instead of adopting the Kucinich resolution and withdrawing the U.S. troops from Libya, ( that we are told are not really there) we see Speaker Boehner intervene with a resolution to “talk” about the issue instead of taking action. Seems like the time for talking was before we attacked a country who has not attacked anyone in NATO, as their charter states is the prerequisite for waging war on Libya. Using the White House meeting on the debt ceiling debate as an excuse to not address this situation immediately is bowing down to the bully pulpit of Barack Hussein Obama, and a disservice to America and the rule of law. Throw in here the fact that there was a worry that the withdrawl of troops in Libya would harm the viability of NATO, and we see just how incompetent our Congress has become today. The viability of NATO is already down to nothing when we consider the fact that NATO peacekeeping troops have been non-existent in the Middle East and North Africa, as these regions implode in a fireball of revolution and chaos. I find it to be hypocritical on how NATO refuses to intervene on the behalf of oppressed citizens whom are being murdered in many other countries, and yet they can wage an illegal war on Libya at the direction of Barack Hussein Obama. America is being used here once again, as the truth is that without the United States doing the bombing and killing in Libya, and thus footing the bill for the Libyan war action, NATO would not be there. Period. This is Obama’s war, and Congress and the War Powers Act of 1973 are irrelvelant.
In Former Military Commander and new Florida Congressman Allen West’s weekly eNewsletter we see exactly what a soldier who has been in two wars thinks of the recent House Libya war action resolutions:
Libya is falling apart, and I shall not support our President’s violation of our law, the War Powers Act of 1973. Speaker Boehner Resolution on Libya – On Friday, June 3, the House approved H. Res. 292 by a vote of 268-145-1, I was one of 10 Republicans who voted “No.”
The resolution would establish that the President has not asked for congressional authorization, and the Congress has not granted it.  H. Res. 292 would reassert Congress’ constitutional role on funding, would require the President to provide within 14 days information on the mission that should have been provided from the start, and would reaffirm the vote Congress took last week that says there should be no troops on the ground.  I voted “No” because we are all aware of these facts as we have seen the Libya operation reach Day 74, as of this vote. By law the President was to come to Congress at or near Day 60, which he did not do. The time for requesting more reports is long past. I shall not see us commit our most precious resources, the American fighting men and women, into another undefined combat theater of operations. Libya is becoming a classic “mission creep” operation.
– Kucinich War Powers Resolution – On
Friday, June 3, H. Con. Res. 51 failed to pass the House by a vote of 148-265, I voted “Yes.”  The bill would direct the President to remove the United States Armed Forces from Libya within 15 days of adoption. This bill was in keeping with the letter of the law, the War Powers Act of 1973. ( emphasis mine)
Allen West Congressman West has not only taken a stand against the Obama administration’s illegal war action in Libya but has also also taken a stand against the cowardice of the establishment GOP in failing to denounce our involvement in the Libyan civil war today, their failure to demand it be stopped immediately.
**As a footnote here, just where is the anti-war faction of The Democratic Attack Machine and their masters in the media today? You know, the Liberal anti-war zealots who called G.W.Bush a war criminal for freeing millions of oppressed Iraqi citizens from the murderous Sadaam Hussein? When was the last time you heard anyone in the mainstream media denounce Barack Hussein Obama’s illegal war in Libya? The fact is that the D.A.M., led by the media have been largely silent about Obama’s newest war action. This type of hypocricy should be called out be all Americans, including our supposed GOP Leadership in Congress.

H Res. 292 Speaker Boehners Libya Resolution

Passed House on June 3rd, 2011   Executive Summary [Full Text Here]

H. Res. 292 would make the following statements of policy:

  • “The United States Armed Forces shall be used exclusively to defend and advance the national security interests of the United States;
  • “The President has failed to provide Congress with a compelling rationale based upon United States national security interests for current United States military activities regarding Libya;
  • “The President shall not deploy, establish, or maintain the presence of units and members of the United States Armed Forces on the ground in Libya unless the purpose of the presence is to rescue a member of the Armed Forces from imminent danger.”

The bill would direct the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, and the Attorney General to transmit—within 14 days after adoption of the resolution—copies of any official document, record, memo, correspondence, or other communication in their possession that was created on or after February 15, 2011, that refers or relates to consultation or communication with Congress regarding the employment or deployment of the U.S. Armed Forces for Operation Odyssey Dawn or North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Operation Unified Protector; or the War Powers Resolution and Operation Odyssey Dawn or Operation Unified Protector.

H. Res. 292 would require the President to submit a report to Congress within 14 days of enactment describing U.S. security interests and objectives, and the activities of the U.S. Armed Forces in Libya since March 19, 2011, including a description of the following:

  • “The President’s justification for not seeking authorization by Congress for the use of military force in Libya;
  • “United States political and military objectives regarding Libya, including the relationship between the intended objectives and the operational means being employed to achieve them;
  • “Changes in the United States political and military objectives following the assumption of command by the NATO;
  • “Differences between United States political and military objectives regarding Libya and those of other NATO member states engaged in military activities;
  • “The specific commitments by the United States to ongoing NATO activities regarding Libya;
  • “The anticipated scope and duration of continued United States military involvement in support of NATO activities regarding Libya;
  • “The costs of United States military, political, and humanitarian efforts concerning Libya as of June 3, 2011;
  • “The total projected costs of United States military, political, and humanitarian efforts concerning Libya;
  • “The impact on United States activities in Iraq and Afghanistan;
  • “The role of the United States in the establishment of a political structure to succeed the current Libyan regime;
  • “An assessment of the current military capacity of opposition forces in Libya;
  • “An assessment of the ability of opposition forces in Libya to establish effective military and political control of Libya and
    a practicable timetable for accomplishing these objectives;
  • “An assessment of the consequences of a cessation of United States military activities on the viability of continued NATO operations regarding Libya and on the continued viability of groups opposing the Libyan regime;
  • “The composition and political agenda of the Interim Transitional National Council (ITNC) and its representation of the views of the Libyan people as a whole;
  • “The criteria to be used to determine United States recognition of the ITNC as the representative of the Libyan people, including the role of current and former members of the existing regime;
  • “Financial resources currently available to opposition groups and United States plans to facilitate their access to seized assets of the Libyan regime and proceeds from the sale of Libyan petroleum;
  • “The relationship between the ITNC and the Muslim Brotherhood, the members of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, al-Qaeda, Hezbollah, and any other group that has promoted an agenda that would negatively impact United States interests;
  • “Weapons acquired for use, and operations initiated, in Libya by the Muslim Brotherhood, the members of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, al-Qaeda, Hezbollah, and any other group that has promoted an agenda that would negatively impact United States interests;
  • “The status of the 20,000 MANPADS cited by the Commander of the U.S. Africa Command, as well as Libya’s SCUD–Bs and chemical munitions, including mustard gas;
  • “Material, communication, coordination, financing and other forms of support between and among al-Qaeda operatives, its affiliates, and supporters in Yemen, the Horn of Africa, and North Africa; and
  • “Contributions by Jordan, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and other regional states in support of NATO activities in Libya.

The bill would declare that the President has not sought, and Congress has not provided, authorization for the introduction or continued involvement of the United States Armed Forces in Libya.  H. Res. 292 would also declare that Congress has the constitutional prerogative to withhold funding for any unauthorized use of the United States Armed Forces, including for unauthorized activities regarding Libya.

According to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, as of Thursday, June 02, 2011, the U.S. has been engaged in Operation Odyssey Dawn for 73 days.

Requirements of the President under the War Powers Resolution:

Section 4(a)(1) of the War Powers Resolution requires the President to report to Congress within 48 hours of commencing operations by U.S. forces when there has been no declaration of war.  On March 21, 2011, 48-hours after U.S. Armed forces engaged in military operations, the President submitted a letter/report to Congress to justify the use of force in Libya.

Section 5(b) of the War Powers Resolution states that the President shall terminate operations within 60 days following the report to Congress, unless the use of force is authorized by Congress.  On May 20th, concurrent with the 60-day limitation in the War Powers Resolution, the President submitted a letter to Congress providing an update on the status and nature of U.S. military involvement in Libya and urging adoption of a Senate resolution expressing support for military operations in Libya.

The President can extend the involvement by 30 days if he certifies to Congress that it is necessary to safely remove U.S. forces.

There is a range of differing legal opinion about whether the President needs Congressional authorization to continue U.S. military involvement beyond the 60-day deadline for termination under the War Powers Resolution, which occurred on May 20th.  Congress has the authority to cut-off funding for any military action.  The House approved an amendment offered by Rep. Conyers (D-MI) to the National Defense Authorization Act which prevented funds authorized in the Act from being used to fund ground troops in Libya by a vote of 416-5.

There is no Congressional Budget Office (CBO) cost estimate associated with this legislation

House to Vote on Libyan War Action This Week

The Republican-led House of Representatives will be voting on a bill sponsored by Dennis Kucinich ( D- Ohio ) this week, according to TheHill.com:

The office of Majority Leader Eric Cantor (R-Va.) said Friday the House would take up a resolution introduced by anti-war Rep. Dennis Kucinich (D-Ohio) that directs the president to remove U.S. armed forces from Libya. The liberal Democrat is acting under authority of the  1973 War Powers Resolution, which enables legislators to force a vote on troop withdrawal measures under certain conditions.

For those of you who have forgotten about the controversial U.S. war action taken against the government of Libya, here is a reminder of just how this illegal action was started, and then obscured by the cloud of the NATO umbrella. The powers that be may  call it a “kinetic military action”, a world peace action, a move to install “Democracy”, or any other cutesy names that are based on the denial of the reality that the Libyan war action is simply an illegal war action against another country. A war action taken against a country that has not attacked any NATO country, as the NATO charter states that it was originally formed to protect against.  Just because the U.S. is now hiding behind the moniker “NATO” does not make this war action legal, or right.

 

The measure is not expected to pass, but a significant number of votes in favor could send a sobering message to the White House, which has struggled to win congressional support for the military intervention in Libya. Both Republican and Democratic leaders criticized Obama for a lack of consultation with Congress in the run-up to the military deployment, and the House has ignored his request for a resolution supporting the mission.

This bill appears to be nothing more than campaign rhetoric designed to waste time, when we consider the fact that there is almost zero chance of it passing. America still has no budget for over 2 years running now, with no resolution in sight, we will hit the debt ceiling again soon, our national debt has now surpassed the $14.5 trillion dollar mark, unemployment is still stubbornly high, as is the price of gasoline, and inflation that most officials in our government refuse to acknowledge,  is crushing the poor and Seniors on a fixed income , yet the wizards in D.C. want to attempt to make a statement by wasting time on this bill? Seems like common sense would tell them to start impeachment proceedings against Barack Obama if they truly  feel he is in violation of the 1973 War Power Act, instead of holding meaningless votes to send him a message. It is time to take a serious stand against the abuse of executive powers and the ignoring of Congressional authority in America today, yet it appears that our representatives in Congress lack the backbone and fortitude to take the necessary stand against Barack Obama’s bully pulpit. House leadership tried to make another statement concerning the illegal U.S. participation in the Libyan war, again from the Hill.com article:

The House last week overwhelmingly voted to add amendments to a Defense authorization bill to bar the president from deploying ground troops to Libya and stating explicitly that Congress was not, as part of the legislation, authorizing the military mission.

One example is the second F-35 engine program, which two administrations have wanted to terminate for several years, only to see Congress keep it alive.

Once again we see just why these types of votes are deemed meaningless. The military does not need or want the expensive second engine for the F-35 fighter jet, yet Congress keeps on demanding it be put into the spending bill again. Can you say the words Lobbyists and wasteful eamarks?  How about attempted vote-buying? No matter how many times the military says they do not want the super-expensive F-35 second engine program, some tyrants in Congress keep on pushing for it. How will we ever cut spending with this type of corruption going on? The answer to that is we will never be able to cut spending until we are bankrupt, period.

This takes us back to the illegal war in Libya and how much it is costing America to install an undefined fake Democracy there. The initial bombing cost us hundreds of millions of dollars. Who gave Obama permission to spend that money? Who tried to stop it? What is it costing us today? What is the mission in Libya? All of these questions go unanswered, while the American public is told to simply sit down, shut up and foot the bill for an illegal Libyan war. Is this what Democracy looks like?

 

 

1973 War Powers Act

The War Powers Act of 1973

Public Law 93-148 93rd Congress, H. J. Res. 542  November 7, 1973

Joint Resolution : Concerning the war powers of Congress and the President.

Resolved by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States
of America in Congress assembled,

SHORT TITLE

SECTION 1.

This joint resolution may be cited as the “War Powers Resolution”.

PURPOSE AND POLICY

 

SEC. 2. (a)
It is the purpose of this joint resolution to fulfill the intent of the
framers of the Constitution of the United States and insure that the collective
judgement of both the Congress and the President will apply to the introduction
of United States Armed Forces into hostilities, or into situations where
imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicate by the circumstances,
and to the continued use of such forces in hostilities or in such situations.

SEC. 2. (b)
Under article I, section 8, of the Constitution, it is specifically provided
that the Congress shall have the power to make all laws necessary and proper for
carrying into execution, not only its own powers but also all other powers
vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any
department or officer thereof.
SEC. 2. (c)
The constitutional powers of the President as Commander-in-Chief to
introduce United States Armed Forces into hostilities, or into situations where
imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances,
are exercised only pursuant to (1) a declaration of war, (2) specific statutory
authorization, or (3) a national emergency created by attack upon the United
States, its territories or possessions, or its armed forces.

 

CONSULTATION

SEC. 3.

The President in every possible instance shall consult with Congress before
introducing United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into situation where
imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances,
and after every such introduction shall consult regularly with the Congress
until United States Armed Forces are no longer engaged in hostilities or have
been removed from such situations.

 

REPORTING

Sec. 4. (a)

In the absence of a declaration of war, in any case in which United States
Armed Forces are introduced–
(1)
into hostilities or into situations where imminent involvement in
hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances;
(2)
into the territory, airspace or waters of a foreign nation, while equipped
for combat, except for deployments which relate solely to supply, replacement,
repair, or training of such forces; or
(3)
(A)
the circumstances necessitating the introduction of United States Armed
Forces;
(B)
the constitutional and legislative authority under which such introduction
took place; and
(C)
the estimated scope and duration of the hostilities or involvement.

Sec. 4. (b)
The President shall provide such other information as the Congress may
request in the fulfillment of its constitutional responsibilities with respect
to committing the Nation to war and to the use of United States Armed Forces
abroad.
Sec. 4. (c)
Whenever United States Armed Forces are introduced into hostilities or into
any situation described in subsection (a) of this section, the President shall,
so long as such armed forces continue to be engaged in such hostilities or
situation, report to the Congress periodically on the status of such hostilities
or situation as well as on the scope and duration of such hostilities or
situation, but in no event shall he report to the Congress less often than once
every six months.

 

CONGRESSIONAL ACTION

SEC. 5. (a)

Each report submitted pursuant to section 4(a)(1) shall be transmitted to
the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the President pro tempore of
the Senate on the same calendar day. Each report so transmitted shall be
referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and
to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate for appropriate action. If,
when the report is transmitted, the Congress has adjourned sine die or has
adjourned for any period in excess of three calendar days, the Speaker of the
House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate, if they
deem it advisable (or if petitioned by at least 30 percent of the membership of
their respective Houses) shall jointly request the President to convene Congress
in order that it may consider the report and take appropriate action pursuant to
this section.
SEC. 5. (b)
Within sixty calendar days after a report is submitted or is
required to be submitted pursuant to section 4(a)(1), whichever is earlier, the
President shall terminate any use of United States Armed Forces with respect to
which such report was submitted (or required to be submitted), unless the
Congress (1) has declared war or has enacted a specific authorization for such
use of United States Armed Forces, (2) has extended by law such sixty-day
period, or (3) is physically unable to meet as a result of an armed attack upon
the United States. Such sixty-day period shall be extended for not more than an
additional thirty days if the President determines and certifies to the Congress
in writing that unavoidable military necessity respecting the safety of United
States Armed Forces requires the continued use of such armed forces in the
course of bringing about a prompt removal of such forces.
SEC. 5. (c)
Notwithstanding subsection (b), at any time that United States Armed Forces
are engaged in hostilities outside the territory of the United States, its
possessions and territories without a declaration of war or specific statutory
authorization, such forces shall be removed by the President if the Congress so
directs by concurrent resolution.

 

CONGRESSIONAL PRIORITY PROCEDURES FOR JOINT RESOLUTION OR BILL

SEC. 6. (a)

Any joint resolution or bill introduced pursuant to section 5(b) at least
thirty calendar days before the expiration of the sixty-day period specified in
such section shall be referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House
of Representatives or the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, as the
case may be, and such committee shall report one such joint resolution or bill,
together with its recommendations, not later than twenty-four calendar days
before the expiration of the sixty-day period specified in such section, unless
such House shall otherwise determine by the yeas and nays.
SEC. 6. (b)
Any joint resolution or bill so reported shall become the pending business
of the House in question (in the case of the Senate the time for debate shall be
equally divided between the proponents and the opponents), and shall be voted on
within three calendar days thereafter, unless such House shall otherwise
determine by yeas and nays.
SEC. 6. (c)
Such a joint resolution or bill passed by one House shall be referred to the
committee of the other House named in subsection (a) and shall be reported out
not later than fourteen calendar days before the expiration of the sixty-day
period specified in section 5(b). The joint resolution or bill so reported shall
become the pending business of the House in question and shall be voted on
within three calendar days after it has been reported, unless such House shall
otherwise determine by yeas and nays.
SEC 6. (d)
In the case of any disagreement between the two Houses of Congress with
respect to a joint resolution or bill passed by both Houses, conferees shall be
promptly appointed and the committee of conference shall make and file a report
with respect to such resolution or bill not later than four calendar days before
the expiration of the sixty-day period specified in section 5(b). In the event
the conferees are unable to agree within 48 hours, they shall report back to
their respective Houses in disagreement. Notwithstanding any rule in either
House concerning the printing of conference reports in the Record or concerning
any delay in the consideration of such reports, such report shall be acted on by
both Houses not later than the expiration of such sixty-day period.

 

CONGRESSIONAL PRIORITY PROCEDURES FOR CONCURRENT RESOLUTION

SEC. 7. (a)

Any concurrent resolution introduced pursuant to section 5(b) at least
thirty calendar days before the expiration of the sixty-day period specified in
such section shall be referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House
of Representatives or the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, as the
case may be, and one such concurrent resolution shall be reported out by such
committee together with its recommendations within fifteen calendar days, unless
such House shall otherwise determine by the yeas and nays.
SEC. 7. (b)
Any concurrent resolution so reported shall become the pending business of
the House in question (in the case of the Senate the time for debate shall be
equally divided between the proponents and the opponents), and shall be voted on
within three calendar days thereafter, unless such House shall otherwise
determine by yeas and nays.
SEC. 7. (c)
Such a concurrent resolution passed by one House shall be referred to the
committee of the other House named in subsection (a) and shall be reported out
by such committee together with its recommendations within fifteen calendar days
and shall thereupon become the pending business of such House and shall be voted
on within three calendar days after it has been reported, unless such House
shall otherwise determine by yeas and nays.
SEC. 7. (d)
In the case of any disagreement between the two Houses of Congress with
respect to a concurrent resolution passed by both Houses, conferees shall be
promptly appointed and the committee of conference shall make and file a report
with respect to such concurrent resolution within six calendar days after the
legislation is referred to the committee of conference. Notwithstanding any rule
in either House concerning the printing of conference reports in the Record or
concerning any delay in the consideration of such reports, such report shall be
acted on by both Houses not later than six calendar days after the conference
report is filed. In the event the conferees are unable to agree within 48 hours,
they shall report back to their respective Houses in disagreement.

 

INTERPRETATION OF JOINT RESOLUTION

SEC. 8. (a)

Authority to introduce United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into
situations wherein involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the
circumstances shall not be inferred–

(1)
from any provision of law (whether or not in effect before the date of the
enactment of this joint resolution), including any provision contained in any
appropriation Act, unless such provision specifically authorizes the
introduction of United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into such
situations and stating that it is intended to constitute specific statutory
authorization within the meaning of this joint resolution; or
(2)
from any treaty heretofore or hereafter ratified unless such treaty is
implemented by legislation specifically authorizing the introduction of United
States Armed Forces into hostilities or into such situations and stating that it
is intended to constitute specific statutory authorization within the meaning of
this joint resolution.
SEC. 8. (b)
Nothing in this joint resolution shall be construed to require any further
specific statutory authorization to permit members of United States Armed Forces
to participate jointly with members of the armed forces of one or more foreign
countries in the headquarters operations of high-level military commands which
were established prior to the date of enactment of this joint resolution and
pursuant to the United Nations Charter or any treaty ratified by the United
States prior to such date.
SEC 8. (c)
For purposes of this joint resolution, the term “introduction of United
States Armed Forces” includes the assignment of member of such armed forces to
command, coordinate, participate in the movement of, or accompany the regular or
irregular military forces of any foreign country or government when such
military forces are engaged, or there exists an imminent threat that such forces
will become engaged, in hostilities.
SEC. 8. (d)
Nothing in this joint resolution–

(1)
is intended to alter the constitutional authority of the Congress or of the
President, or the provision of existing treaties; or
(2)
shall be construed as granting any authority to the President with respect
to the introduction of United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into
situations wherein involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the
circumstances which authority he would not have had in the absence of this joint
resolution.

 

SEPARABILITY CLAUSE

SEC. 9. If any provision of this joint resolution
or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the
remainder of the joint resolution and the application of such provision to any
other person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby.

EFFECTIVE DATE

SEC. 10. This joint resolution shall take effect on the
date of its enactment.

CARL ALBERT

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

JAMES O. EASTLAND

President of the Senate pro tempore.

 

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, U.S.   November 7, 1973.

The House of Representatives having proceeded to
reconsider the resolution (H. J. Res 542) entitled “Joint resolution concerning
the war powers of Congress and the President”, returned by the President of the
United States with his objections, to the House of Representatives, in which it
originated, it was

Resolved, That the said resolution pass, two-thirds of the House of
Representatives agreeing to pass the same.

Attest:

W. PAT JENNINGS

Clerk.

I certify that this Joint Resolution originated in the House of
Representatives.

W. PAT JENNINGS

Clerk.

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES  November 7, 1973

The Senate having proceeded to reconsider the joint
resolution (H. J. Res. 542) entitled “Joint resolution concerning the war powers
of Congress and the President”, returned by the President of the United States
with his objections to the House of Representatives, in which it originate, it
was

Resolved, That the said joint resolution pass, two-thirds of the Senators
present having voted in the affirmative.

Attest:

FRANCIS R. VALEO

Secretary.

 

Acknowledgments

This file obtained from byrd.mu.wvnet.edu

Contributed by: “Andrew M. Ross” <[email protected]>