Monthly Archives: June 2010

America's New Rulers

As we approach another Independence Day, I reflect on what has made this nation great and fret over the actions being taken that threaten its greatness.  What cold irony it is that we celebrate our independence from one tyrannical ruler only to find ourselves struggling against an entire collection of them.

The threat is not from radical Islamic terrorists, small groups of  home-grown radicals or the hyperbole espoused by pundits from both ends of the political spectrum.  It is from those we chose to put in power – our elected officials.

Once power is gained, it is not easily relinquished.  The simple human desire for self-preservation makes it a most-difficult task to voluntarily weaken one’s own position.  It takes an extraordinary person to unselfishly accept loss of power – I would submit that few if not zero of those exist in power today.  What that creates is a new aristocracy.  Not one of inherited title, but of entitlement none-the-less. Tocqueville pondered the value of Democracy over Aristocracy, we are allowing the worse to replace the better.

How do they make their death-grip on power palatable to a large-enough portion of the American voting population?  They condemn that which dilutes their power – freedom.  They don’t directly attack individual freedoms, they use shame to get enough of the citizenry to give it away on their own.

Achievement is ego, success is greed, self-reliance is selfishness.  How many times have we heard it?  Selfish CEOs, greedy bankers, assaults on State and individual rights – all to diminish that which made this nation great.

Those of us that produce are selfish.  We work hard to keep what we have earned and to have the right to assist those that deserve the help – which is certainly different than those that might demonstrate need.  A person can be needy of a thing yet not be deserve it.

Why is it immoral to produce something of value and keep it for yourself, when it is moral for others who haven’t earned it to accept it? If it’s virtuous to give, isn’t it then selfish to take? – John Galt, Atlas Shrugged

This denouncing of those who produce, create wealth, and succeed serves only to take power from individuals and concentrate it in the government.  Alexis de Tocqueville wrote, “Once works of the intellect had become sources of force and wealth, each development of science, each new piece of knowledge, each new idea had to be considered as a seed of power put within reach of the people.”  He understood that a man’s success took power from central authority and gave it to the people.  Our leaders understand this relationship and are working to reverse the flow of power by making the desire for success and reward .. evil.

The self-doubt this creates among the producers in the economy is dangerous.  At what point will those that create wealth quit doing so because they do not wish to create wealth for someone that chooses to produce nothing?  From another perspective, if the government takes from the producers and gives to non-producers, how long before all benevolence is performed through government programs?  In Atlas Shrugged, John Galt weighs these questions (emphasis mine):

You know that you can’t give away everything and starve yourself. You’ve forced yourselves to live with undeserved, irrational guilt. Is it ever proper to help another man? No, if he demands it as his right or as a duty that you owe him. Yes, if it’s your own free choice based on your judgment of the value of that person and his struggle. This country wasn’t built by men who sought handouts.

This country was built by men who sought to earn, produce, trade.  They asked for and expected nothing that they did not work for.  This morality  is one that is being shamed, pushed into the shadows, broken.

Power must be re-distributed, wealth must not.  This Independence Day let us celebrate those still willing to be productive and take the power back from the new aristocracy in America.

Ethanol: What They Aren’t Telling You

Most information on Ethanol presents the corn-based fuel as a panacea for the worlds pollution woes, a green-jobs creator, and a needed boost to American farmers.  Digging into these claims brings some interesting data points to the surface.

The American Coalition for Ethanol touts ethanol as:

..a high octane, clean burning, American-made renewable fuel. Its production and use offer a myriad of benefits to the United States and its citizens.
The production of ethanol is an economic engine for the United States, adding value to U.S. agricultural products and bringing billions of dollars to the nation’s economy each year. The use of ethanol reduces harmful auto emissions, offers consumers a cost-effective choice at the pump, and decreases the amount of expensive crude oil needed to satisfy the nation’s thirst for transportation fuel.

Wow, sounds great doesn’t it, like the energy holy grail, until you dig into ethanol itself.  Examining the ethanol production process is somewhat revealing.

The number one crop used for Ethanol is corn. Uh-oh- now we have to divert corn to become our new Gasoline, but is there enough Corn?

The USDA Economic Research Service about corn:

  • Corn is the most widely produced feed grain in the United States, accounting for more than 90 percent of total value and production of feed grains.
  • Around 80 million acres of land are planted to corn, with the majority of the crop grown in the Heartland region.
  • Most of the crop is used as the main energy ingredient in livestock feed.
  • Corn is also processed into a multitude of food and industrial products including starch, sweeteners, corn oil, beverage and industrial alcohol, and fuel ethanol.
  • The United States is a major player in the world corn trade market, with approximately 20 percent of the corn crop exported to other countries.
  • ERS analyzes events in the domestic and global corn markets that influence supply, demand, trade, and prices.

That means that all of our corn is already in high demand in everything from Aspirin, to cereals, to livestock feed. If Ethanol replaced motor vehicle fuel, the principles of supply and demand would force almost all corn produced to be diverted to Ethanol production. This would skyrocket the price of all corn-dependent products including livestock fed from corn unless they find an alternative.

According to the Cato Institute in a January 2008 report titled “Food Fight” Ethanol has already had an affect on our economy.

The ethanol boom has knock-on effects in the rest of the rural economy. The growing use of cereals, sugar, oilseed and vegetable oils to produce ethanol and biodiesel is supporting crop prices and, indirectly through higher animal feed costs, raising costs for livestock production. As Table 1 shows, the prices for poultry, beef, and eggs have all increased by more than 5 percent this year. (Pork prices have risen relatively slowly because production has been very high compared to demand, although producers are expected to lower production during 2008 because of losses from low prices and higher feedcosts.[12]) Farmland prices in key corn-growing states such as Iowa, Nebraska, and South Dakota have increased by more than 20 percent in the last year.

So thats the economic impact, Choose between corn-dependent products or driving – you can’t afford to do both.

According to Elsa Steward in her article “What’s Wrong with Ethanol?” She points out that Ethanol by itself is not cost effective.

Ethanol is not likely to give us any relief from high gasoline prices. A gallon of gasoline produces about 1.5 times more energy as a gallon of ethanol. Because of this lower energy density, ethanol production and transport requires more production and transport capacity than gasoline. Ethanol also absorbs water, which is present in existing pipelines. Ethanol cannot be transported in these pipelines because the water would dilute the ethanol. The ethanol must therefore be carried over land by train or truck, a more expensive means of moving the ethanol from one place to another. Although the price of motor fuel sometimes increases due to problems with foreign and domestic oil supplies, the price of ethanol has historically been higher than gasoline prices and may remain higher for some time to come.

The Department of Energy’s Genomic Science Program

  • Can one gallon of ethanol displace one gallon of gasoline?
    • No. Ethanol has about 70% the energy content of gasoline per unit volume, so for every gallon of gasoline consumed, 1.4 gallons of ethanol would be needed to displace it. Ethanol, however, has a higher octane rating than gasoline — about 113 for ethanol compared to 87 for regular gasoline. The higher the octane rating, the better a fuel is at preventing engine “knocking” caused by inefficient fuel combustion. In other words, the higher-octane fuel provides better performance because it is used more efficiently to generate power rather than heat. If engines were optimized to take advantage of the higher octane rating of ethanol, they could achieve fuel economy more similar to that of gasoline engines.
  • Can ethanol be used by existing fuel-distribution infrastructure?
    • Ethanol and gasoline-ethanol blends cannot be transported by existing pipelines that carry gasoline. Water present in petroleum pipelines can pull ethanol out and cause ethanol-gasoline blends to separate into two phases. Ethanol must be transported by train, barge, or truck within an independent distribution system to ensure handling separate from the ethanol-production facility to distribution terminals, where ethanol is blended with gasoline just before delivery to retail stations.
  • Can ethanol be used in colder northern U.S. climates?
    • Due to ethanol’s lower vapor pressure, engine ignition is more difficult in colder weather for vehicles running on fuels with high ethanol content. During winter months, gasoline is added to E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline blend) to make E70 (70% ethanol and 30% gasoline), which has a vapor pressure that improves starting in cold weather. Although current practice is to “blend-down” E85, the cold-start issue is a technologically solvable engineering problem for vehicle manufacturers.

I can’t afford a bowl of cereal, probably can’t afford to get very far in my car, if I’m up north, I can’t drive in the winter and ethanol has to be trucked in which means it burns more ethanol to get ethanol. But wait theres more. If you act now on this “Clean-Burning” fuel we will include free pollution with every purchase.

Oh gee did we leave that part out? So sorry, ethanol is not “clean burning” nor is the process to make it.

From Gas2.0

The Des Moines Register reported the other day that Iowa’s ethanol plants contribute 15 Percent — 7.6 million metric tons out of a total of 52 million metric tons — of greenhouse-gas emissions found in the state’s new inventory of major manufacturers, businesses and power plants
Iowa’s Department of Natural Resources found that the largest portion of the state’s overall emissions came from fermenting grain at the plants and not from burning natural gas or coal. In addition, burning biomass such as switchgrass at various industrial plants added another 0.13 million metric tons.

Uh-oh Ethanol production produces more greenhouse gas than coal plants, not very clean is it. Imagine the effect Cap & Trade would have on this industry. Lets just say you’ll be better off with a bicycle.

But I digress, lets look at the burning of Ethanol itself.

The Environmental Working Group (EWG) fought against the EPA granting Ethanol a Clean Air Act waiver for an increase from the 10% Ethanol Gasoline to increase from 15% to 50% (Note now its 10% Ethanol and 85% Ethanol) in May of 2009 due to, among other reasons, Ethanol production’s propensity to “degrade water quality, worsen emissions of some air pollutants and escalate health risks for children and other vulnerable people, according to scientific studies by the Department of Energy, Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, National Research Council, independent academic researchers and EPA scientists”

An environmental watchdog group is telling us that increasing the amount of ethanol used will increase air pollution and lead to health risks based on Government studies, and yet its that same Government trying to force it upon us.

In short, widespread use of ethanol only creates more problems than it is supposed to solve. IIt is not the holy grail of green energy, if anything its more pollutive than standard fossil fuel use.

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Truth Unimportant, Left Will Do Anything to Destroy Tea Party

*updated* from orginal post on 6/13/10.

When The Tea Parties began, the Liberal Media’s first instinct was to ignore and ridicule it to hopefully make it go away. With that strategy failing, the left is pulling out all the stops.

Fox News picked up the stories and began to cover the Tea Party events.  The even-handed coverage was more than the liberal media could take – they had  to cover the Tea Party as well.  Unlike Fox News, the rest of the media colored their stories with derogatory terms and a belittling perspective – the reports lacked any sense of fairness.

Just painting the Tea Party as full of ignorant, silly people didn’t go far enough.  In a full-on race-baiting rant, Chris Matthews was the first to exclaim that, “They’re all white” and that the Tea Partiers represent, “The other demographic”.

Joe Arpaio with Ted Hayes (background)

It, of course, didn’t matter that the Tea Party is open to everyone regardless of race/color/creed/sexual preference/or political party.  The Tea Partier’s positive response to non-white rally speakers such as Ted Hayes and Bert Hernandez more than refutes this sad point, but the majority of event attendees are white and that was enough for the MSM.

Thus, the rest followed suit declaring the Tea Party all white, therefore they must be racist. After the “All White” exclamation, the Liberal media went out of its way to find racism at Tea Parties, and unfortunately they did find some. They took the few instances they found and turned into full blown cries of the “Tea Party is Racist”

The racist narrative started failing as videos demonstrated that the Tea Partiers actually turned racist groups away – those pushing any brand of racism were asked to leave and culled from the crowds.

At the Health Care Rally in Washington DC, A Congressman claimed he was spit on intentionally and called the ‘N-word’ several times. He also stated that he heard it all over the place at the rally. Mr. Brietbart offered a substantial reward for video/audio proof of this accusation but no proof has come forward, instead quite the opposite. Several videos proving the innocence of the Tea Party have shown up, but not one showing any racism.

Because the cries of racism and the severe bias in media coverage have not broken the Tea Party , the left brought back an old tactic from, as stated by Chris Matthews, “One of their heroes of the past, Saul Alinsky”

And, as an article at Breitbart.com illustrates, the movement to infiltrate the Tea Party was begun.

The idea is simple, show up at a Tea Party rally with a racist or poorly spelled sign, dressed as a KKK or Neo Nazi member, or anything that will discredit the Tea Party or make them look Racist or stupid. Alinsky told students to use this tactic in the Spring of 72 during a George HW Bush speech on Nixon’s Vietnam War policies at Tulane University.

The infiltration was attempted many times, but the Tea Party was ready and responded with intelligence, not violence. All infiltrators were quickly exposed and either ridiculed and hounded till they left, or followed around by real Tea Party members holding signs with arrows and saying, “He’s not with us” “Infiltrator” “Soros Paid Stooge” and so on.

Due to the failure of the infiltration to stop or end the Tea Party, the left has once again upped the ante. They have graduated to full on disruption.

Vicious threats, insults, and open violence.

http://www.thefoxnation.com/tea-party-movement/2010/06/09/watch-bush-hater-punches-tea-partier-face

From the Ft Lauderdale Tea Party Website

TEA PARTY CRASHERS INVADE!!!

On Saturday June 5th, our 68th consecutive week, three tea party crashers invaded our humble corner with physical abuse along with the most vile language you’ve ever heard. The law was called and Fort Lauderdale’s finest showed up immediately. Two men and one woman did not like our right of freedom of speech. They physically assualted some members of our group and there is one lady in our group that was pushed into the street. She is thinking of pressing charges against the male that assualted her. Tea Party Fort Lauderdale will not give in to this Obama Style Thuggery!!! Check out our “newsletter” page on our website for more lies and deceptions from the left.

The New Black Panthers to “Prepare for War” against the Tea Party

With the rise of the Tea Party, the white-right and other racist forces. With gun sales nationwide at an all time high amongst whites, with a mood that is more anti-Black than any time recent, it is imperative that we organize our forces, pool our resources and prepare for war!” Chairman Malik Zulu Shabazz, Esq. Convention Convener and Party Chairman.

The Tea Party has faced opposition since it began and unfortunately, that opposition has escalated to violence. The Lefts efforts to shut down the voice of “We The People” has not worked so they are beginning to do what they always resort to, attack. I write this not to scare you, but to make you aware of how far they are willing to go to frighten you into submission.

*Update 7/17/10*

Due to the New Black Panther/Obama DoJ scandal the New Black Panthers have made several media appearances In almost all public appearances are threats of a confrontation between Glenn Beck & Tea Party vs the New Black Panthers.

Russian TV:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BCYokE2KQzc

Mediaite:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aPPC–1b_m4

Geraldo:

and heres a piece from the interview with Megyn Kelly followed by a speech from the NBP leader proclaiming that they “need to be armed” and “get rid of the police”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gtJVPPi_iAk

And to further the Progressive Demonization of the Mainstream American Tea Party the NAACP passed a resolution calling on the Tea Party to repudiate “Racist Elements” within it. h Right after first lady Michele Obama finished speaking at a NAACP function stating basically that we are still unequal.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3sTRpdQzGEc

This resolution is nothing more than “Fanning the flames” There is no proof or evidence that can or has been brought against the Tea Party to justify it.

The Tea Party already removes through nonviolent means all protestors that exhibit racist or questionable views as I showed above during the infiltrator attempts. The Tea Party is neither racist nor inviting to racists and are being set up by the Progressives. The New Black Panthers are trying to incite violence with their hateful rhetoric and pending confrontation. Stand firm patriots and hold the line peacefully. Let them scream and curse. Just remember, The LEFT wants you to be violent to paint you as the racist violent right wing enemy. Everyday you stand firm and deny them that violence is a victory for us all.

FEMA's Missing, But Not Why You May Think

Americans are asking, “Where’s FEMA?  Why aren’t they involved with the Gulf Oil Spill”.  The answer is as sad as it is strange.

Oddly enough, there’s been no formal request from any of the Gulf State Governors to declare the BP Oil Spill a “Federal Disaster Area”.  Instead, there have been numerous requests for aid that would normally follow the formal declaration of a disaster, but without the official declaration.  Governor Jindal (R-LA) asked the Small Business Association to, “..declare an Economic Injury Disaster Declaration that entitles local business owners to apply for federally subsidized loans” and asked the Department of Defense to “..approve funding for at least 90 days of military duty in Title 32 USC 502(f) status for up to 6,000 Soldiers and Airmen serving on active duty ..”.
Even though there’s been no disaster declaration, FEMA is offering aid by guiding victims through the claims process on the DisasterAssistance.Gov website.  But, make no mistake, claims go to BP not through the Federal government.
“The Administration will continue to hold BP responsible for all removal costs and damages associated with the BP oil spill, including efforts to stop the leak at its source, reduce the spread of oil and protect the shoreline and mitigate damages, to the maximum extent possible under the law.
Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and other applicable laws, BP is accountable for processing and paying all removal costs and applicable damages incurred by individuals, business, and state and local governments as a result of the BP oil spill. Individuals may file a claim online or over the phone with BP, and may then be asked to visit a claims office location to provide documentation.
So now instead of where is FEMA, the question is, why isn’t this disaster a “Declared Federal Disaster”?  According to the Director of the University of Maryland Center for Health and Homeland Security, Michael Greenberger Federal law “gives the president enough leeway .. If this threatens substantial harm to the health and safety and economy of the state, I think he could use the Stafford Act,” Greenberger said, in reference to the main disaster response law.
Well now we have one expert opinion stating that the Oil Spill could qualify as a declared disaster, but none of the Gulf State Governors have made the request as yet.
Governor’s Actions:

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Angry Dependents: How a Liberal Describes the Tea Party

Many on the left have struggled with the identity of the Tea Party.  A New York Times columnist gives it a shot and gets some things right while missing the mark on some key points.

J.M. Biernstein penned an op-ed at the Times that starts by dissecting his view of the Tea Party platform.  The piece then descends into a rambling metaphysical attempt to weave the philosophies of Descartes and Hegel into a hypothesis on what the Tea Party wants.

Mr. Biernstein starts by making a weak pairing of absolute arguments to demonstrate contradictions within the Tea Party:

When it comes to the Tea Party’s concrete policy proposals, things get fuzzier and more contradictory: keep the government out of health care, but leave Medicare alone; balance the budget, but don’t raise taxes; let individuals take care of themselves, but leave Social Security alone; and, of course, the paradoxical demand not to support Wall Street, to let the hard-working producers of wealth get on with it without regulation and government stimulus, but also to make sure the banks can lend to small businesses and responsible homeowners in a stable but growing economy.

What this set of thoughts represents is an inability to understand degrees or levels of tolerance.  Tea Partier’s aren’t pushing for anarchy.  They aren’t concerned about the status quo – they are concerned about the growth of the size and scope of the government.  So let’s take each absolute pairing and analyze it:

  1. Keep the government out of health care, but leave Medicare alone
    • Tea Party Perspective: The government should not extend itself into more of our health care, nor remove freedom of choice, it should NOT make ALL of us MORE dependent on Uncle Sam
    • The difference between health care reform and Medicare – Medicare is a choice (currently).
  2. Balance the budget, but don’t raise taxes
    • Tea Party Perspective: The highly-progressive and overly-complex U.S. tax system is unfair.  Fix it instead of just continuing to over-burden working and productive Americans
    • Raising taxes takes the heat off of our leadership to control spending.  Get spending under control first, then figure out what your need to ask Americans to pay for
    • Congress pays for things that are not necessarily for the good of the nation (earmarks).  Preventing more money from flowing in, might make them more frugal.
  3. Let individuals take care of themselves, but leave Social Security alone
    • This is a dichotomy where one doesn’t exist.  Letting individuals take care of themselves is so broad it could mean anything.
    • Leaving Social Security alone is not a sign I’ve seen at a rally.  I believe responsible reforms of Social Security are necessary.
  4. Not to support Wall Street, but make sure banks can lend to small business and homeowners
    • These are two separate issues glued together to create a conflicting statement out of thin air.
      1. Not support Wall Street: No stimulus, let them fail – that’s correct.  Americans call that a “free-market”
      2. Make sure banks can lend to .. : Uh, that’s for the bank to do – Americans don’t want the government’s hands in that at all – in fact, Fanny and Freddie should have already failed

See, degrees, not this vs. that.  Reasoned objection to the government’s power-grab.

The author continues to take a stab at why the Tea Party is so “angry”.

My hypothesis is that what all the events precipitating the Tea Party movement share is that they demonstrated, emphatically and unconditionally, the depths of the absolute dependence of us all on government action, and in so doing they undermined the deeply held fiction of individual autonomy and self-sufficiency that are intrinsic parts of Americans’ collective self-understanding.

Surprise, another absolute.  So now we are absolutely dependent on the federal government?  No sir, to a degree we are dependent upon the government.  I do need the government for some things, but not for everything.  It is the current push to make all of us “absolute” dependents upon Uncle Sam that the Tea Party is opposed.  The largest difference between Mr. Biernstein’s view and a conservative’s view of what’s happening is that while he believes that we suddenly woke-up and realized we were slaves to the government, conservatives would say that the latest intentions to increase the power of the government are the straws that broke the camels back.

Next Biernstein describes Tea Party patriots as jilted lovers.

This is the rage and anger I hear in the Tea Party movement; it is the sound of jilted lovers furious that the other — the anonymous blob called simply “government” — has suddenly let them down, suddenly made clear that they are dependent and limited beings, suddenly revealed them as vulnerable.  And just as in love, the one-sided reminder of dependence is experienced as an injury.  All the rhetoric of self-sufficiency, all the grand talk of wanting to be left alone is just the hollow insistence of the bereft lover that she can and will survive without her beloved.

To be a jilted lover, we have to have once been in-love.  Conservatives love their country, that is not the same as loving the elitist morons on Capitol Hill and within the White House.  We love what those institutions stand for, but not necessarily the elitist jerks that fill them.  I do not feel injured.  I feel like re-defining the boundaries and modifying the population within those institutions – remember in November.

As if to put a progressive exclamation point on his article, the author make the now oft claim that Tea Partiers are on the verge of an armed revolt.

In truth, there is nothing that the Tea Party movement wants; terrifyingly, it wants nothing.  Lilla calls the Tea Party “Jacobins”; I would urge that they are nihilists.  To date, the Tea Party has committed only the minor, almost atmospheric violences of propagating falsehoods, calumny and the disruption of the occasions for political speech — the last already to great and distorting effect.  But if their nihilistic rage is deprived of interrupting political meetings as an outlet, where might it now go? With such rage driving the Tea Party, might we anticipate this atmospheric violence becoming actual violence, becoming what Hegel called, referring to the original Jacobins’ fantasy of total freedom, “a fury of destruction”?

Well, close.  There is nothing MORE that conservatives want.  We want less, much less of everything the government is trying to take over from us.  And to answer where our “nihilistic rage” is going since there aren’t any more town halls to interrupt… November sir, November.

The one thing that J.M. Biernstein got absolutely right in his article is when he exclaimed, “There is indeed something not just disturbing, but  frightening, in the anger of the Tea Party.”.  If you support a bigger government, continued reduction of individual freedoms, the D.C. power-grab and you have an elected seat in Government.. I understand why you hold that concern.

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The United States Constitution – Including Amendments [Full Text]

Preamble

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I

Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of Honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time: and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;–And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article II

Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:–“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III

Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;–to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;–to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;–to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;–to Controversies between two or more States;–between a State and Citizens of another State;–between Citizens of different States;–between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Article IV

Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records, and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Article V

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article VI

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwith-standing.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article VII

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth

In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

George Washington–President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire: John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts: Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut: William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York: Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey: William Livingston, David Brearly, William Paterson, Jonathan Dayton

Pennsylvania: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Thomas FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris

Delaware: George Read, Gunning Bedford, Jr., John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom

Maryland: James McHenry, Daniel of Saint Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll

Virginia: John Blair, James Madison, Jr.

North Carolina: William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson

South Carolina: John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia: William Few, Abraham Baldwin

Amendments

Amendment I – Freedom of Speech, the Press and Religion

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II – Right to bear arms

A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III – Quartering of troops

No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV – Unreasonable search and seizures

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V – Double Jeopardy, self-incrimination, public domain compensation

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness, against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment VI – Speedy and fair trial

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

Amendment VII – Civil suits

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII – Cruel and Unusual Punishment

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX – Reserved rights of the people

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X – Unenumerated Powers

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people.

Amendment XI – Ratified Feb. 7, 1795

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

Amendment XII – Presidential election process – Ratified July 27, 1804

1. Amended by the 20th Amendment, Sections 3 and 4.

The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice President, shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the United States.

Amendment XIII – Prohibition of Slavery – Ratified Dec. 6, 1865

Section 1
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XIV – Citizenship, Representation, Disqualification on Treason, Validation of Public Debt – Ratified July 9, 1868

Section 1
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5
The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

Amendment XV – Voting rights – Ratified Feb. 3, 1870

Section 1
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XVI – Income Taxation – Ratified Feb. 3, 1913

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

Amendment XVII – Senatorial election process – Ratified April 8, 1913

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, that the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointment until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Amendment XVIII (Repealed by 21st Amendment) – Prohibition of Alcohol – Ratified Jan. 16, 1919 / became effective Jan. 16, 1920

Section 1
After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2
The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 3
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by Congress.

Amendment XIX – Women’s Suffrage – Ratified Aug. 18, 1920.)

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XX – Lame Duck Amendment, succession for the presidency -Ratified Jan. 23, 1933; Wen into effect Oct. 15, 1933

Section 1
The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the twentieth day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the third day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the third day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3
If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died, the Vice President-elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President-elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President-elect nor a Vice President-elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Section 4
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5
Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

Section 6
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

Amendment XXI – Repeal of Prohibition of Alcohol -Ratified Dec. 5, 1933

Section 1
The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2
The transportation or importation into any State, territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by convention in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission thereof to the States by the Congress.

Amendment XXII – Presidential Term Limits – Ratified Feb. 27, 1951

Section 1
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

Amendment XXIII – Electors for D.C. – Ratified March 29, 1961.)

Section 1
The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXIV – Prohibition of Poll taxation – Ratified Jan. 23, 1964

Section 1
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reasons of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Section 2
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXV – Vice Presidential Succession to the Presidency – Ratified Feb. 10, 1967

Section 1
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3
Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

Amendment XXVI – Setting voting age to 18 – Ratified July 1, 1971

Section 1
The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of age.

Section 2
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXVII – Congressional Pay Changes – Ratified May 7, 1992

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

Obama Reminds Us Not To Salute the Flag During National Anthem

Obama received criticism for no-longer wearing the U.S. flag pen on his lapel. In response, the President went of on this rant:

As I’ve said about the flag pin, I don’t want to be perceived as taking sides,” Obama said. “There are a lot of people in the world to whom the American flag is a symbol of oppression. And the anthem itself conveys a war-like message. You know, the bombs bursting in air and all. It should be swapped for something less parochial and less bellicose. I like the song ‘I’d Like to Teach the World to Sing.’ If that were our anthem, then I might salute it.

So something like giving the world a Coke would be cool, but Francis Scott Key’s rememberence of the struggle that created this country is an issue.  Well, try this one on for size Captain Kick-ass:

According to the United States Code, Title 36, Chapter 10, Sec. 171, During rendition of the national anthem when the flag is displayed, all present except those in uniform are expected to stand at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart.

Obama, you’re no hero and your continued denigration of those that helped to create and defend this great nation remind us of why we will be spending every waking moment defeating you, your ilk, your hatred of the American way of life.  Be gone Satan, be gone.

Follow Rich Mitchell on Twitter

Obama Driving BP to Default So Taxpayers Can Foot the Cleanup Bill

Another HuffPo hit.  Chris “Leg Tingly” Mathews posted about the possibility that BP may go bankrupt.  I decided to let him have it on why:

well, BP’s market capitalization is now less than the worth of its assets, so yup, some form of default is coming. But Obama wants the default.

He sent Holder and an army of snakes (aka lawyers) down to the gulf instead of getting in front of this himself. There is a time for blame – that time typically comes after you deal with the disaster to avoid distraction. Leadership 101, guess they don’t teach that in ivy league schools.

Investors are fleeing from the stock leading BP to have no choice. Their bonds are trading at or below junk. They couldn’t even borrow money, but perhaps Obama could loan him some of our (printed) cash.

With $12B or so left in the piggy and $1.5B just in the containment effort… this looks aweful for taxpayers (the ones who will be paying for this).

Obama Takes Sides: Hugo Chavez Over England

On April 2nd, 1982 the Argentine Military invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands which had been home to nothing but British Shepherds for years. The British Navy responded with the largest naval action since WWII and In the ensuing Falklands War 900 people lost their lives.

The British won the war and maintained ownership and control of the Falklands. Now the British Falklands are under attack again, this time diplomatically. The Falkland Islands have been found to be oil rich, and Argentina wants them again. Backed by Hugo Chavez chanting “Queen of England the Empire is over,” 32 Latin American and Caribbean heads of state agreed to support “the legitimate rights of the republic of Argentina in the sovereignty dispute with Great Britain”.

The question for the UK has been, Where is Obama?  At Telegraph.co.uk Nile Gardiner writes,

If the Obama administration does not take a clear position in support of London, the Anglo-American Special Relationship will be significantly damaged. It is imperative that in the coming days the White House issues an unequivocal statement backing UK sovereignty over the Falklands in the face of Argentinian bullying, and sends a clear signal that it stands united with Great Britain.
President Barack Obama and his Secretary of State Hillary Clinton cannot remain neutral and sit on the fence over an issue of vital national interest to the United Kingdom. While British and American soldiers fight side by side on the battlefields of Afghanistan, the United States must stand shoulder to shoulder with the British people as they once again confront Argentine aggression and defend their own kith and kin.

That was in February 2010, The Obama admin had done just that, sit on the fence, until now. Now he has done the exact of what Britain ever expected. Obama has sided with (Socialist) Latin American countries in demanding sovereignty negotiations over the Falklands. This is yet another slap in the face to our ever shrinking list of allies in an attempt to appease those that should be our enemies.

The American position on the Falklands and the current issues over British Petroleum are a sign to England that their friendship with us means nothing. We will lose our old friends.

By siding with the Chavez back Argentina, Obama is sending a clear signal to our allies that they mean nothing to us and to Communists we are on their side. Chavez is a rabid wolf that cannot be appeased, this will only whet his appetite. Seeing this weakness from the USA will prompt him to conduct his lifelong dream and invade Colombia.

The British paid for the Falkland Islands in blood, and will never give them up regardless of what position Obama takes.

Follow @StopObama2012 on Twitter

Sources:

  1. http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/180325/Barack-Obama-sparks-new-row-over-Falklands
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falklands_War

Obama Can't Talk to BP CEO Because He's Afraid of BP's Board?

So, the administration has it’s loafers on the neck of BP – which part of BP?  It might be those former employers of BP that rely on the company for their pensions.  It could be those that have BP in their 401k retirement accounts.  It’s certainly not the CEO, Obama hasn’t even called him yet.

Finally, after weeks of wondering why the CEO  wasn’t hearing from our golfer-in-chief, pontificator Gibbs provides us with the answer – It’s the board stupid.  This ranks right up there with Gibbs having told us that Rush trying to buy a stake in the St. Louis Rams was, “slavery.. only fatter”.

Gibbs informed the press and public that Obama hasn’t dialed-up Tony Hayward because, “Anything the CEO wants to do .. has to be approved by the board”.

Ah, so.. Obama held a session with the Board members then… not exactly – wait, not at all.

This has to be the worst excuse ever.  Of course it was approved by Obama, wonder what that intellectually stunning exchange sounded like:

Gibby: “Barry, I have to tell ‘em something.. I could tell them that you were working with Republicans and Democrats so that we could conduct the call in a bi-partisan manner?”

Barry: “I think everyone’s figuring out the whole partisan thing – try again”

Gibby: “You texted him, just not sure if he got it?”

Barry: “Good, but no, that doesn’t blame anyone else for my lack of action”

Gibby: “I see, how about blaming BP’s board?”

Barry: “Now THAT’s the way to kick the ass down the road”

Gibby:” kick the can down the road sir?”

Barry: “Uh, I’m a very busy man”

The CEO does not run to the board to get every act approved and if Obama thought the Board was who needed to approve his miraculous, but still announced super-fix-it plan.. couldn’t he talk it over with the CEO and let Mr. Hayward worry about the corporate governance issues?

Obama doesn’t understand because he has no clue how business, corporations, or much of anything else in the real world works.  He’s a slick-talking, over-dressed, arugula-scarfing elitist.

Progressives Take-Up "Town-Halling" Against Obamacare

During the times of tall sailing ships and pirates, a punishment was used that basically drug the offender under the length of the ship.  This practice was known as keel-hauling and I believe that Democrats may prefer this to what they are experiencing today – town-halling.

During the push to pass health care reform in 2009, Democrats held town halls.  Those against the health care reform were angry and outspoken.  These town-hallings became so prevalent that Democrats cancelled their town halls and settled only for tightly-controlled situations.  Roll forward to now…

Today, Nancy Pelosi was speaking at one of those tightly-controlled speeches in an attempt to sell the health care reform message.  First, selling the reform to people who supposedly support it seems odd.  Then again, the crowd, attendees of a progressive conference, started yelling, “”Our homes, not nursing homes!” just as Pelosi started to speak.  What happened?  Nancy got town-halled .. by progressives.

Will their now be another heart-felt speech about Harvey Milk and how scared she is?  Will their be concern over the rhetoric from the likes of Chris Mathews or Obama and how they might be leading progressives to violence? Will there be a call for calm from the radicals of the left?  Of course not.

Now apparently, Nancy didn’t get the memo.  Tim Ryan (D-Ohio) cancelled his health care reform-selling town hall back in March due to concern for his security.  Others were refraining from scheduling them at all and blamed it on Republicans for creating a feeding frenzy among tea party protesters.  Has the GOP now started activating it’s secret network of MoveOn.org agents?

No, this is what happens as Americans finally see what’s in the bill after it’s passed – and they’re angry.  Citizens from all over the political spectrum are now realizing that they had been lied to.  Not just mislead, but outright lied to.

Politico.com reported that the law will negatively impact more than a million low-income workers as soon as September.

Under the provision, insurance companies will no longer be able to apply broad annual caps on the amount of money they pay out on health policies. Employer groups say the ban could essentially wipe out a niche insurance market that many part-time workers and retail and restaurant employees have come to rely on.

I worked as a bus boy, waiter, bartender, shelf-stocker and there is no way I could have afforded the full-fledged plans that the government is now requiring.  Isn’t this the group Obama promised the reform would help?  Now their employers will only be allowed to offer too-expensive government-approved plans.  When they cannot afford it.. well, short term.. it’s just tough luck.  In 2014 (only 3.5 short years away), they’ll be able to get government assistance to help them pay for a plan off of the state-run exchanges that they will still probably not be able to afford.   Obamacare will relieve these working Americans of the health plans – you know, the ones they could keep if they liked them?

The leader of the progressive left, President Obama, even attempted a town hall today.  To keep his audience calm he could have just given the commencement speech he used to lull a student to sleep, but he chose to just pay them off – $250.00.  Obama centered the rally around the $250.00 Medicare rebates that many seniors will be receiving soon.  Obama used fear tactics, calling the GOP’s repeal movement and attempt to, “roll back” rebates and benefits.  The imagery is amazing – Obama gives you a check for $250.00 and tells you that the GOP will take it back from you if you let them.  Which side is using harmful rhetoric?

The President didn’t stop with the promise of extra cash from the public treasury.  He went on to re-promise what we already know is not true.

“What you need to know is that the guaranteed Medicare benefits that you’ve earned will not change,” he said. “If you like your doctor, you can keep your doctor.”

As I posted, some Doctors are already ceasing to accept new Medicare patients and others are dropping Medicare patients they currently serve – due to the new legislation.  Is Obama assuming that anyone that loses their doctor due to these changes must not have liked them anyway?

Of course the speech-giver-in-chief continued to talk about the doc-fix that is intended to fix the concerns of those Medicare patients, temporarily, but he failed to mention that it comes at a cost that will make his plan actually increase the deficit – one broken promise at a time please.

Town-hallings will only be less-prevalent if Democrats stay out of the public light.  Now that Americans are seeing what so many tried to warn them about before the health care reform was passed, they are mad.. and they aren’t going to take it anymore.